The goal of petro.One is providing a reproducible platform for acquiring and analyzing metadata by searching papers on oil and gas from the OnePetro website.
The standard way of searching for papers in OnePetro is using a web browser entering the search terms for a particular paper we are looking for. The result will come as web pages containing dozens, hundreds or thousand of paper titles. We need to browse all the resulting pages to find the papers that have a good match with the subject we are researching. Although it has the capability to export to csv and xls files, they will need to be imported into another application to perform some analysis.
By using some statistical tools available through
R, the search could turn in highly profitable in terms of time, matching quality and selection of the papers. The search keywords are entered thorugh the R console and the papers will return in a shape of a dataframe, which is identical to a spreadsheet: rows of paper titles and columns with details from the metadata extracted from the web page. With the dataframe already in our computers we could perform a thorough search and narrow down to the ideal papers for our research.
You can install
petro.One from Github with:
Or, the latest development version with:
Or from CRAN with:
The package dependencies can be installed with:
A typical OnePetro search URL would look like this:
You can see the search string for yourself after you hit enter on a paper search, which could be explained like this:
|q=||parameter that holds the query words. In the example above, it would be
|peer_reviewed=||parameter switch to get papers than have been only peer reviewed. When it has the value
parameter switch that activates when
|from_year=||parameter to enter the starting year of the search|
|to_year=||parameter to enter the end year of the search.|
There are additional parameters such as:
|start=||indicate the starting page if the resulting search has several|
|rows=||indicate the number of rows (papers) to display per page. In the web browser, the options are 10, 50 and 100. Off-browser it could be a number up to 1000.|
|sort=||related to the selector
|dc_type=||indicates what type of document the paper is.|
These are the type of documents:
chapter conference-paper general journal-paper presentation media other standard
There are other parameters but they will not be used as often as the ones already described.
They key is build a search URL that is recognizable by OnePetro. To do that I wrote a function
make_search_url that does just that. Instead of entering the search keywords, how will they be searched, year and type of paper, we enter them from the R console.
Let’s say we want to search the word neural network. How do we want to perform that search? Paper that contain the word neural or the word network, or papers that contain exactly the words neural network? In the former, we would use the option
any, in the latter,
how = "any" means to search for papers that contain the word
neural or the word
network. Let’s take a look at the difference in returning results with
how = all for the same keywords
neural network. Here we make of use of two functions in petro.One:
library(petro.One) library(tidyverse) #> -- Attaching packages ---------------------- tidyverse 1.2.1 -- #> v ggplot2 3.1.0 v purrr 0.2.5 #> v tibble 2.0.0 v dplyr 0.7.8 #> v tidyr 0.8.2 v stringr 1.3.1 #> v readr 1.3.1 v forcats 0.3.0 #> -- Conflicts ------------------------- tidyverse_conflicts() -- #> x dplyr::filter() masks stats::filter() #> x dplyr::lag() masks stats::lag() # search any word like "neural" or "network" url_any <- make_search_url(query = "neural network", how = "any") url_any #>  "https://www.onepetro.org/search?q=neural+network&peer_reviewed=&published_between=&from_year=&to_year=" get_papers_count(url_any) #>  3931 # search for papers that have "neural" and "network" at the same time url_all <- make_search_url(query = "neural network", how = "all") url_all #>  "https://www.onepetro.org/search?q=\"neural+network\"&peer_reviewed=&published_between=&from_year=&to_year=" get_papers_count(url_all) #>  3615
We can send a query where we specify the starting year and the ending year. In this example the option
how = "all" means to search papers that contain exactly the words
neural network as a difference to
any which means search for
any occurrence of the words. Of course, using
any rather than
all will yield many more results. We use two petro.One functions:
make_search_url() to build the OnePetro search URL and
onepetro_page_to_dataframe() to put the papers in a table.
library(petro.One) # neural network papers from 1990 to 1999. Exact phrase my_url <- make_search_url(query = "neural network", from_year = 1990, to_year = 1999, how = "all") df <- onepetro_page_to_dataframe(my_url) df #> # A tibble: 10 x 6 #> book_title paper_id dc_type authors year source #> <fct> <fct> <fct> <chr> <int> <fct> #> 1 Deconvolution Using~ SEG-1996~ confere~ Essenreiter, Rober~ 1996 SEG #> 2 Neural Network Stac~ SEG-1992~ confere~ Schmidt, Jumndyr, ~ 1992 SEG #> 3 Seismic Principal C~ SEG-1996~ confere~ Huang, Kou-Yuan, N~ 1996 SEG #> 4 First Break Picking~ SEG-1990~ confere~ Wagner, D.E., Amoc~ 1990 SEG #> 5 Neural Networks And~ SEG-1995~ confere~ Leggett, Miles, Br~ 1995 SEG #> 6 Drill-Bit Diagnosis~ SPE-1955~ journal~ Arehart, R.A., Exx~ 1990 SPE #> 7 Conductive fracture~ ARMA-95-~ confere~ Thomas, Andrew L.,~ 1995 ARMA #> 8 Reservoir Character~ SEG-1993~ confere~ An, P., University~ 1993 SEG #> 9 Seismic Attribute C~ SEG-1993~ confere~ Johnston, David H.~ 1993 SEG #> 10 Neural Networks For~ SEG-1993~ confere~ Hansen, Kim Vejlby~ 1993 SEG
And these are the terms that repeat more freqently:
We can also get paper by the type of document. In OnePetro it is called
In this example we will be requesting only
conference-paper type. Here we add to
make_search_url() the parameter
dc_type. Note also that we are adding another parameter
rows to get 1000 rows instead of 10, 50 or 100 as the browser allows.
# specify document type = "conference-paper", rows = 1000 my_url <- make_search_url(query = "artificial intelligence", how = "all", from_year = 1950, to_year = 1980, dc_type = "conference-paper", rows = 1000) (pcount <- get_papers_count(my_url)) #>  4 df <- onepetro_page_to_dataframe(my_url) df #> # A tibble: 3 x 6 #> book_title paper_id dc_type authors year source #> <fct> <fct> <fct> <chr> <int> <fct> #> 1 The Realities Of Radio~ OTC-1788~ conferen~ Moyer, James P.~ 1973 OTC #> 2 Application of Digital~ SPE-2659~ conferen~ Hall, O.P. Jr.,~ 1969 SPE #> 3 Computer Recognition O~ SPWLA-19~ conferen~ Schoonover, L.G~ 1974 SPWLA
Only 4 on artificial intelligence from 1950 until 1980!
For this example we want to know about conference papers where the words well and test are found together in the papers.
library(petro.One) my_url <- make_search_url(query = "well test", dc_type = "conference-paper", from_year = 2017, to_year = 2018, how = "all") get_papers_count(my_url) # get the paper count #>  956 df <- read_multidoc(my_url) # create a dataframe of papers print(dim(df)) # dimension of the dataframe #>  956 6 (tf <- term_frequency(df)) # create a term frequency table #> # A tibble: 1,974 x 2 #> word freq #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 reservoir 325 #> 2 well 269 #> 3 field 223 #> 4 model 161 #> 5 fractur 160 #> 6 gas 152 #> 7 case 139 #> 8 use 136 #> 9 product 135 #> 10 studi 124 #> # ... with 1,964 more rows # calculate the minimum frequency for, let's say, the first 20th term min_freq <- min(head(tf, 20)$freq)
Now, it is not enough for us to know what terms are the more repeating but how those freqent terms relate to each other. In the following plot you will see that the strength of the relationship between terms is reflected by the thickness of the connection lines.
We can see that wells and well are connected strongly to horizontal, transient, pressure, flow, testing, reservoirs, fracture, and analysis. The rest of the words are frequent but not very much connected.
The summary functions allow us to group the papers by a preferred group:
This will give you a summary of the count not the papers themselves.